# Kadane’s Algorithm — (Dynamic Programming) — How and Why does it Work? | by Rohit Singhal

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12 ## On this Article we offer you detailed Data on Kadane’s Algorithm — (Dynamic Programming) — How and Why does it Work? | by Rohit Singhal : If you might be right here, then chances are high that you just have been attempting to unravel the “Most Subarray Drawback” and got here throughout Kadane’s Algorithm however couldn’t determine how one thing like that’s working. Or possibly you have been uninterested in utilizing Kadane’s Algorithm as a “black-box”. Or possibly you needed to know the dynamic programming facet of it. Or possibly you simply wish to find out about a brand new idea which may make you higher at programming. Regardless of the cause, you’ve come to the precise place.

To raised understand Kadane’s Algorithm, first, we might undergo a brief introduction of Dynamic Programming. Then, we might take a look at a fairly common programming drawback, the Most Subarray Drawback. We might see how this drawback will be solved utilizing a brute pressure method after which we might attempt to enhance our method and provide you with a greater algorithm, aka, Kadane’s Algorithm.

So, let’s get into it.

## Dynamic Programming

Dynamic Programming is a technique for fixing a posh drawback by breaking it down into a group of easier subproblems, fixing every of these subproblems simply as soon as, and storing their options utilizing a memory-based knowledge construction (array, map, and so on.). So the following time the identical sub-problem happens, as an alternative of recomputing its resolution, one merely appears up the beforehand computed resolution, thereby saving computation time.

Right here’s a superb rationalization on the idea of Dynamic Programming on Quora — Jonathan Paulson’s reply to How ought to I clarify dynamic programming to a 4-year-old?

Although there’s extra to dynamic programming, we might transfer ahead to know the Most Subarray Drawback.

## Most Subarray Drawback

The most subarray drawback is the duty of discovering the biggest attainable sum of a contiguous subarray, inside a given one-dimensional array A[1…n] of numbers.

For instance, for the array given above, the contiguous subarray with the biggest sum is [4, -1, 2, 1], with sum 6. We might use this array as our instance for the remainder of this text. Additionally, we might assume this array to be zero-indexed, i.e. -2 can be referred to as because the ‘0th’ factor of the array and so forth. Additionally, A[i] would symbolize the worth at index i.

Now, we might take a look at a really apparent resolution to the given drawback.

## Brute Pressure Strategy

One very apparent however not so good resolution is to calculate the sum of each attainable subarray and the utmost of these can be the answer. We will begin from index 0 and calculate the sum of each attainable subarray beginning with the factor A, as proven within the determine beneath. Then, we might calculate the sum of each attainable subarray beginning with A, A and so forth as much as A[n-1], the place n denotes the dimensions of the array (n = 9 in our case). Observe that each single factor is a subarray itself.

We are going to name the utmost sum of subarrays beginning with factor A[i] the local_maximum at index i. Thus after going via all of the indices, we might be left with local_maximum for all of the indices. Lastly, we will discover the utmost of those local_maximums and we might get the ultimate resolution, i.e. the utmost sum attainable. We might name this the global_maximum.

However you would possibly discover that this isn’t an excellent technique as a result of as the dimensions of array will increase, the variety of attainable subarrays will increase quickly, thus rising computational complexity. Or to be extra exact, if the dimensions of the array is n, then the time complexity of this resolution is O(n²) which isn’t excellent.

How can we enhance this? Is there any manner to make use of the idea of dynamic programming? Let’s discover out.

## Kadane’s Algorithm

On this part, we might use the brute pressure method mentioned above once more, however this time we might begin backward. How would that assist? Let’s see.

We might begin from the final factor and calculate the sum of each attainable subarray ending with the factor A[n-1], as proven within the determine beneath. Then, we might calculate the sum of each attainable subarray ending with A[n-2], A[n-3] and so forth as much as A.

Now let’s deal with the subarrays ending with the factor A (=-1) and A (=2) proven within the determine beneath.