On this Article we offer you detailed Data on A Take a look at A few of These Loopy Diacritical Marks | by DRM | What To Do About…Every part
Doodads, thingamajigs, and whatchamacallits.
Diacritical marks: English makes use of them solely not often, however in different languages like French and German they’re widespread. Diacritical marks are these dots, traces, and swoops that seem above, beneath, and infrequently even beside sure letters in phrases.
The aim of diacritical marks is to alter the sound of the person letter they’re marking or to alter the that means of a whole phrase by altering which syllable is accented. Let’s take a look at some examples.
The mark above the ‘e’ on this instance is called a circumflex; additionally it is known as a caret. Usually seen above letters corresponding to ‘a’ or ‘e’, this accent mark adjustments the pronunciation of the letter beneath it. An ‘e’ with a caret may have a sound like “eh” within the English phrase “set”. Within the French phrase resort, the caret marks the place the place a letter was (on this case an ‘s’ which stays within the English equal hostel.) The mark has functions in arithmetic (the place it’s known as a “hat”) and pc programming as effectively.
Generally mistaken for an apostrophe, the mark over the primary ‘e’ on this instance is called a grave (pronounced GRAY v, or GRAH v), which signifies which syllable within the phrase ought to be accented. This mark is often seen in French phrases corresponding to very (very) and lip (lip), in addition to Italian phrases corresponding to metropolis (metropolis).
Word that the grave mark slants left solely; the best slanting mark is an accent, lined subsequent. Failure to place the grave mark within the correct place can change the that means of the phrase.
In our instance, if no diacritical marks have been current then summary (a report of labor expertise) would turn into resume (to start once more); exposé (a proper assertion of information) would turn into expose (to indicate or reveal.)
On this identical instance, the mark above the second ‘e’ is called an acute accent; it’s used to alter the pronunciation of the ‘e’ to a sound much like the English “ay” as in “bay”. It’s widespread in French phrases corresponding to café and attaché, though “borrowed” phrases like these two have turn into a part of the English lexicon to the extent that they’re not thought-about “overseas” phrases. For this reason such phrases will not be italicized, and you’ll typically see them with out the accent marks in any respect.
The 2 little dots above the ‘e’ on this instance are identified by a number of completely different names. On this French phrase, it’s known as a tremor and seems over the vowel ë (and ï in different instances), indicating that the marked vowel is pronounced individually from the previous vowel.
In German, the mark known as an umlaut and seems above the vowels ä, ö, and ü, altering their pronunciation, and typically their that means. For instance, the German phrase stunning means “already” or “very” (in addition to a dozen different meanings), whereas stunning means “good-looking” or “stunning.”
In English it’s known as a diaeresis; they aren’t widespread in English, although sure publications desire to make use of them over doubled vowels (as in “reëlect” or “coöperate”) to assist maintain pronunciation clear. Such utilization is taken into account old school.
The mark above the ‘n’ on this instance is called a tilde (pronounced TIL duh). It’s typically seen in Spanish phrases like our instance (pee NYA tah) or bathtub (BAH nyo). The mark tells the speaker that the ‘n’ sound and the ‘y’ sound ought to be pronounced collectively, leading to a blended sound that English audio system don’t use, however is widespread in Spanish and different languages.
In English, the phrase “tilde” refers solely to the wavy line above the letter ‘n’; in Spanish, the phrase “tilde” could consult with any accent mark. The English phrase for any common accent mark is “tittle.”
The mark connected to the underside of the ‘c’ is called a cedilla (sih DIL uh). It’s used primarily in French written language to inform the speaker that the ‘c’ within the phrase goes to have a tender sound just like the English letter ‘s’, somewhat than a tough sound just like the English letter ‘okay’. In our instance, the phrase façade is pronounced “fuh SAHD”, not “fah CADE”; equally, boy is pronounced “gar SAHN.”
căt and cāy
Within the phrase “cat” the mark above the ‘a’ is called a quick (BREE v); whereas it has a connotation in music, in grammar the breve is used to point that the vowel sound is brief. Within the phrase “cay” the mark above the ‘a’ is called a macron (MAY crahn) and is used to point that the vowel sound is lengthy. These marks are often solely seen in dictionaries in English, however could seem in common utilization in different languages.
Along with the pretty widespread diacritical marks proven above, there are a variety of bizarre ones that you just’ll most likely solely encounter in non-English languages. Listed below are some examples.
The ring above a letter (aka overring) is widespread in Baltic, Slavic, and Nordic languages; most frequently, it represents a vowel shift — that’s, a change in the best way the vowel usually sounds. For example, the letter ‘u’ often has the sound of the phrase “you”, however with a hoop above it [ů] turns into a blended sound (a diphthong) that’s akin to the sound of a brief ‘o’ like in “cot.” Overrings will be mixed with different diacriticals on the identical time, like ń̊ (n with overring and accent) or e̊̄ (e with macron and overring).
The mark above the A’s right here has many names: Most correctly it is called a caron or a haček / hacek; it’s additionally known as a hachek, wedge, test, tick, tender, inverted circumflex, inverted hat (arithmetic), or flying fowl. It seems like a breve, however observe the pointed tip.
This mark is widespread in Japanese European languages, the place it marks a change in pronunciation: Over vowels, it signifies a change in tone, often rising or falling; over consonants, it signifies a change in articulation, corresponding to from onerous palate to taste bud. The mark additionally has makes use of in arithmetic.
The haček advanced from one other diacritic generally known as the ‘dot above’ (aka overdot): instance [ċ].
There are far too many diacritical marks to cowl in a single article. What’s vital to know is that these marks will not be simply decorations. They’re there to assist audio system of the language (native or in any other case) ensure they’re saying what they imply — identical to different punctuation marks.
So, when doubtful, consult with your trusty fashion information (or look it up on-line) in order that fairly Girl or good-looking man you’re making an attempt to impress doesn’t find yourself pondering you’re an fool as a substitute.