What is SMPS and how does it work?

do you know that What is SMPS? everyone in today’s world Uses a computer, whether it is a desktop or Laptop but there are different parts inside it, then those parts need electricity but this electricity is much less than what we use in our house, like talking about TV, FRIDGE, IRON, OVEN etc. All this Direct 220V-240V But if we give this voltage direct to the parts of the computer, then everything will burn, so how much power does the computer need, today I will tell you how the voltage is controlled inside the computer and what does it, so let’s know of What is SMPS.

What is SMPS

smps kya haiFull form of SMPS is Switch Mode Power Supply. This is an electronic circuit, if you buy separately for desktop, then you will get some square shape box, the same is SMPS, it gives power to different parts of the device computer such as To RAM, Motherboard, Fan. By the way, electricity goes from MotherBoard to different parts.

Now we know a little about its work, so when it is first given to the computer from the main power supply means the board of the house, then it first stays in the form of AC (Alternative CURRENT) after that when it is the SMPS of the AC computer. When near, this SMPS converts it to DC, for this it uses capacitor and DIODE’s, it switches the switch to ON and sometimes OFF with the help of regulator, means it changes the switch mode, sometimes DC to AC. It converts and sometimes AC into DC, hence its name is also called Switch Mode Power Supply. Now you know what is Switch Mode Power Supply.


What is SMPS in HindiSo first of all, the cable that comes to the current computer, then it first goes through the small device inside the SMPS, then first it goes to the AC filter, there in the process of filtering the AC in the process of neutral and phase. In between NTC, Fuse, Line Filter, PF Capacitor is used, its output is given to Rectifier and Filter, which converts it from AC to DC which was Rectifier and which was filter with the help of two capacitors. Converts into Smooth DC, the output of this process is Pure DC and it was given to the switching transistor, here we use two NPN transistors, which with the help of the switching cycle again gives an AC output, we give this To do another one process whose name was SM transformer, then it was a matter of PRIMARY CIRCUIT of SMPS, after this it is given once more to Rectifier and Filter, which is again given to this AC Supply and once to Smooth DC (One thing to remember is that the current that comes from the transformer in the house is AC and Bat The current that comes in the tery is DC) The output that comes out after this action is in three forms, a 12VOLT, 5 VOLT, 3 VOLT. This is the primary and secondary circuit of SMPS.

But the Rectifier and Filter of the primary circuit would connect with an Output Starter transfermer and it would be connected to another Amlifier IC and it had three output wires, the amplifier IC is an area of ​​SMPS where There is complete management work on pay. Three Major Cables come out from the Amlifier IC, one is Green which is Power on Cable, the second comes in Violet color which gives stand by current of +5 volt, and the third one which comes in Gray color, which is called Power Bood cable. It is said.

These three Output Cables are given to MotherBoard. Switching transistor and amplifier IC is connected with a driver and it is controlled through amplifier IC. A sensing wire comes from the secondary switching circuit, which tells the Amplifier IC that the load is increasing, while at the same time the DRIVER which increases the SWITCHING Transiter on-off process, and which keeps getting voltage at a constant speed. Which is +12volt, +5volt and +3volt and this process is called switching mode power supply. When the green cable is powered on, then 12v, 5v, and 3v are received from the SMPS to the MotherBoard. This is how SMPS works.

What is Direct Current and Alternative Current

By the way, current means Flow Of Charge. these are of two types

1. Direct Current
2. Alternative Current

In Alternate Current, the flow of charge is in both directions, here it is from positive to negative and negative to positive, but if we talk about direct current, then its flow is only in one direction, that is from negative to positive. . A good example of this is the battery you use in your TV and watch, where DC current comes out from the battery. Let us understand a little better that the electricity that comes to your house is an example of alternative current and the battery in the remote is direct current if our computer needs DC current, so to convert the alternative current to DC, the device’s What is used is your SMPS.

Types of SMPS

1. DC से DC Converter
2. Forward Converter
3. Flyback Converter
4. Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

1. DC से DC Converter

This is a type of SMPS Converter in which you just, the current that comes to the SMPS is AC, before converting it into DC, the current that passes through the DC Converter first passes through the primary side of the Step Down Transformer. , this step down transfermer is a part of SMPS which is of 50 Hz, this voltage goes to the secondary part of the rectified and filter hook transfermer, now it comes out from the output voltage power and is transported to different parts. . The output of this is sent once more to the switch. To control the voltage.

2. Forward Converter

This is also a converter that takes the current through a choke, whether the transistor does its work or not. When the transistor is completely closed, then this work is done by the diode. So for this reason, the energy inside the load is increased both at the time of off and on, but keeps the choke energy, at the time of ON period and sends some energy to the output load.

3. Flyback Converter

In this Flyback Converter, when the switch is on, the magnetic field of the inductor Stores field energy. When the switch is in the on position, the power output is empty in the voltage circuit. Duty Cycle determines the output voltage. That is its job.

4. Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

This is the easiest and most basic converter that works on Flyback. At the time of conduction, the switching transistor increases primarily linearly according to a slope from the transfer, which is Vin/Lp.

Depending on the type of SMPS used

The type of power supply depends on its size and usage. Its types are AT SMPS, ATx SMPS, Baby SMPS. But mostly AT and ATx are used more.

Here the full form of AT SMPS is Advance Technology SMPS, and the full form of ATx SMPS is Advance Technology Extended SMPS.

SMPS के Connectors

1. 20+4 Pin ATX
This is a MotherBoard Connector, this connector gives the charge of MotherBoard +12 Volt. This connector uses AT SMPS 20 and ATX SMPS 24 Pin. A 24 pin connector and a 24 pin motherboard are used.

2. CPU4+4 पिन Connector
This connector is needed for CPU which uses 4 pins which are all of 12v and there is a connector named, SATA Power Connector.

3. SATA Power Connector
in the computer There are Hard Disk and DVD ROM, this Power Connector gives power to them. This was some information about the power connector of SMPS. This is a 4 pin connector.

How will SMPS be in the future

Going forward, there will be more special SMPS which can convert the voltage well and can be done easily. Going ahead on these few things given below will be taken care of.

  • can give more output
  • Can take more voltage and output less voltage
  • power capacity can be increased
  • Switching mode to work faster

my final verdict

So friends, you must have liked today’s information very much, I hope this information will be useful to you and if you If you do hardware repair, then you have more benefits, by the way, you have become capable of doing this. What is SMPS If you can answer this question, with this SMPS has a huge contribution in our computer, you have also come to know how this device works, with the help of Switch Mode Power Supply Technology, it is being made smaller. And it can be installed in a small device, if you still want to ask any question, then definitely write in the comment box below and subscribe to our blog, Jai Hind Thank you.

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